World History
Standard 7: Recognize significant causes, events, figures, and consequences of the Great War period and the impact on worldwide balance of power
What significant causes, events, figures, and consequences of the Great War period and the impact on worldwide balance of power?
Video:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OfBWcUCdlJE

TEST: http://www.classmarker.com/embedded_quizzes/?quiz=cfe40cf1e2f7def49240483b79a1e355

Benchmark 1: Analyze the causes of World War I including the formation of European alliances and the roles of imperialism, nationalism, and militarism.
The Start of WW1
Before World War I many European countries had alliances with each other. If one nation happened to be attacked then their alliances helped out. The war started right after an Austrian-Hungarian archduke, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian. Their country declared war on Siberia, and then the alliances began to spread across European nations. Imperialism began when the greater alliances beat the enemy nations. The Victor gained land, soldiers, and supplies.

Germany had a bit of an advantage during World War I. Germany’s military had increased greatly over their enemies. Countries like Germany strategized their attacks, so if a nation invaded their land they could easily defend and defeat their foes. Most leaders of the European nations were great nationalists. If attacked, most nations would strike back hard. Countries were also very loyal to their alliances. If an ally was in trouble nations would help attack the enemy. The start of World War I began from a chain-like effect of one man killing another. The nationalism and pride of the European countries and their alliances continued the war.




Benchmark 2: Describe the changing nature of warfare during World War I.
The changing nature of warfare during World War I

During World War I technology and warfare had changed greatly compared to the other wars. The amount of artillery and its damages had increased greatly. In WWI, the nations used strategies including the use of three types of combat; aerial, ground, ocean-based attacks.

LOOK! It’s a Bird... It’s a Plane...YES it’s a Plane...With a Big Gun.

Aerial combat began during WWI; at first planes were used to carry equipment and supplies, but then pilots began to add machine guns for protection. The Germans used a blimp, called The Zeppelin, to carry and drop bombs on their enemies, yet the blimp was easily destroyed due to the opposing bullets ripping the surface of the blimp (quite like popping a balloon). The use of aircraft was advancing greatly during this time. Planes did have an effect on the war happening on the ground. Bomber planes could easily take out enemy soldiers, tanks, and bases. Ground combat was more strategized than ever during this war. Soldiers began to use powerful weapons in battle, yet rifles and other weapons were still used in the trench wars.

· Real-Life Battleship™
The war in the ocean had two sides; on the sea, which included warships, and below the sea, which included submarines. The ships used in WWI were considerably large. The battleships contained many soldiers and many turrets. Carrier ships were used to defend and launch air crafts. Below the sea navies would use submarines to sneak up on enemies. The submarines could launch torpedoes, and also be used at sea level as well. There were a few ways to defend from these attacks. Nations would place mines in certain locations of the sea. Also they used technology called radar to spot large object coming by them.

Benchmark 3: Summarize significant effects of World War I

WW1 had a large effect on the world. The war gave new leagues and Treaties, as well as governmental changes. This was the start of a different era.

Questioning the Government

The minds of the political leaders throughout different nations had changed greatly. European people and governments began to switch political parties. In some countries, especially the United States, Women’s rights and privileges changed greatly as well. Governments began to give women the right to vote. Women gained major roles in weapon development, food and clothes supply, and other industries.

New Leagues and Treaties

Some countries around the world started a collaboration called the League of Nations. The league’s failures started out small but gradually help the start of World War II. The league’s goals were to prevent war by disarmament and collective security throughout the league, and settling international disputes of the law. The Allies victory forced Germany to sign The Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. The Treaty of Versailles was an act that stated that Germany was responsible for the start of World War I. Parts of Germany had to pay for war damages. This caused Germany to lose great amounts of money, which meant loss and rations of food supply and other essential products. This caused many Germans to die of starvation and helpless diseases. Germany became very weak and aching for someone to take lead.



Benchmark 4- Describe the causes and effects of the German economic crisis of the 1920s and the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression.
WE’RE BROKE
1920’s (German Crisis)

Once the Axis had lost World War I, their nations had to pay a great debt for the cause of the war. The Treaty of Versailles caused great grief for Germany. They were forced to pay enormous amounts for the reparation of France and Great Britain. Germany was forced to give 15% of their land. Germany’s economy fell and then large amounts of Germans died of starvation and illnesses. They became very vulnerable for an individual, such as Adolf Hitler to rank up and rise to power.

1930’s (Great Depression)

The Great depression was a drastic world-wide economic failure. There are still some who question how it transpired. The crash of the stock market was a key component to the fall of global economic depression. Profits and prices dropped on all demands and every essential product. There are two main views on how the Great depression ended. Many countries had already broken out of the depression but the US was still suffering from it. It started to get better once the United States entered World War II. The United States government created organizations that helped brings the people back into the economy. Works Progress Administration (WPA) was an effective program. The W.P.A. gave people the chance to work on common matters, such as public roads, schools, building, and other places the economy back in order.


Benchmark 5- Describe the rise of authoritarian governments in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Spain, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco.
Rising totalitarians

Joseph Stalin- In 1924, Stalin gained control of the Soviet Union government. His goals were to increase growth of large industries and farm production. Stalin created a new type of government called a totalitarian state. He was not a just leader; he forced his laws on the citizens. Stalin used brutal force on many low-class citizens who opposed the change.

Benito Mussolini- Mussolini was head of a group called the Black Shirts in Italy. They were against communism. He led a March on Rome 1922 to prevent a communist outbreak. The government in Italy became frightened and appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. He continued to gain power in many ways. Mussolini had secret police monitoring the citizens, gave loyal Fascists head offices, and controlled the press and banned criticism of the government. A Fascist is a supporter of racism and dictatorship by the means of complete governmental and economical control.
Adolf Hitler- Hitler became head of the Nazi-party in the 1920’s.He won large support by blaming the Jews for their economic troubles and the loss of World War I. The Great Depression caused many to follow the Nazi-party. Hitler became dictator of Germany in 1933. Hitler plotted to bring democracy to an end in Germany. He used some of the same methods as Stalin and Mussolini to control Germany. He forced harsh laws on Jews. His idea to end unemployment was to limit wages and prices. Hitler also banned any outburst of public speech and started building programs. The Treaty of Versailles did little to stop Hitler from increasing his military.

BENCHMARK 6: Analyze the restriction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against populations in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and occupied territories.

Humiliation of Jews:
Oppression of ethnic and social minorities in Germany and other occupied countries shipped daily to concentration camps during World War II mainly focused with Jews were required to wear a yellow badge and the rest were kept in walled ghettos, where they remained isolated from the general populace.

Nazis and the Jewish Question:

In January 1942, Nazis edited the plans for Final Solutions of the Jewish Question, which was Nazi Germany's policy to exterminate European Jews. From that point on until the end of the war approximately six million Jews and other minorities were brutally murdered. The Nazis' aggressive war strategy for living space in eastern Europe was said to “defend Western Civilization against the Bolshevism of sub-humans” by coherently killing all that were considered unworthy enough (which not only included Jews, but homosexuals, Slavs, and political prisoners, too.)


Jewish relocation:

Millions of Jews were sent to relocation camps, which are largely know as concentration camps. The name originated from when Nazis started moving or relocating jews and others to different areas. These relocations camps were soon not just a new home to jews, they were their last homes. More than ten million people around Europe were forced into labor. Many died relocating, were worked to death, and thousands were forced into extermination camps. 2.5 million Non-Jewish citizens of occupied territories died as a result of genocide, forced labor or starvation.




Short timeline of Nazis involved with Soviets in the war.

The German army reaches the city of Brest-Litovsk on the Polish border with the Soviet Union.
Sep 17th, 1939
The German Army captures Kiev, the Ukrainian capital in the Soviet Union.
Sep 20th, 1941
The German Army advances on Moscow.
Oct 6th , 1941
Red Army recaptures the city of Kursk in the Soviet Union.
Feb 8th, 1943




BENCHMARK #7: Trace the causes and key events related to World War II.

What started the mess:
World War II began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland.
Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex.

Revenge from the first war:
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.
Woodrow Wilson wanted a treaty based on his 14-point plan which he believed would bring peace to Europe.
Georges Clemenceau wanted revenge. He wanted to be sure that Germany could never start another war again.

A compromise between the two:
Lloyd George personally agreed with Wilson but knew that the British public agreed with Clemenceau. He tried to find a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau.

An undesirable surprise:
Germany had been expecting a treaty based on Wilson's 14 points and were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, they had no choice but to sign the document.
The mandatory request for the Germans:
· War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War I.
· Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war.
· Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland area was to be de-militarized.
· Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. Aeschylus (union with Austria) was forbidden.

Drastic times call for drastic measures (and drastic people):
The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. Germany could not afford to pay the money because during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. People were
dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. His name was Adolf Hitler.

BENCHMARK 8: Explain the causes, events, and effects of the Holocaust (1933-1945) including its roots in the long tradition of anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews and other victims

Causes:
Hitler killed 6 million Jewish people because he said he believed that they caused economic crisis. He believed this because Jewish people believe in the Old Testament. Jewish bankers also didn't see anything wrong with charging interest on people who use their money. This, in many people’s opinions, caused a depression in Germany’s economy of socialism. Jews were also not an Aryan race (Blond hair, blue eyes)

Events:
  • Euthanasia Programs-1939: This was German’s first program of mass murder; it was where the Nazi soldiers of Germany killed the ill living hospitalized. Although euthanasia usually meant the painless killing of terminally ill patients who would suffer more if they were alive, Nazi’s term was far more violent than that, where they’d ship all ills off to euthanasia camps to be killed.

  • Nuremberg laws-1935: This was a set of laws that restricted Jewish rights. The laws included that Jewish civilians had to wear the Star of David on clothes and were banned from many places around towns. Jews were also not allowed to marry or have relationships with any citizens of German or kindred blood, and Jewish people were forbidden to display the Reich and national colors and flag in any form.

  • Kristallnacht-1938: Nazi soldiers invaded the villages of Jewish people, breaking any personal possessions of value they could find (where the name ‘crystal night’ originates from.) they even took some of the males of the family. This pogrom was a series of organized attacks and massacres throughout Austria and Nazi Germany.

  • Transported to ghettos: Transported to ghettos- Millions of Jewish families were shipped to isolated ghettos, and had to live there for years, some were killed randomly, or were transported to concentration/extermination camps. All were either killed, lived in fear, or worked and starved to death. Nazis established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied divisions of Poland and the Soviet Union alone. German occupation authorities created the first ghetto in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland in October of 1939.

  • Death march-1944: when the Jewish society were moved the camps to central Germany because soviet union and U.S. were closing in. A majority died on the march.

Effects:
This event was one of the cruelest, racist, and inhuman events in
the history of mankind, and affected millions of people. It induced death,
physical and mental harm, and life changing experiences to many people. Surprisingly,
during this time most would turn a blind eye at the suffering and pain these people
would go through. Martin Niemöller once said, apropos the ignorance of all the citizens, saying "First they came for the communists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me."
Despite the lack of attention to the horrific events, two thirds of the Jewish population in Europe was killed; over six million innocent lives were annihilated. Communities where there an existential amount of Jews previous to the war vanished post WWII. Jewish communities decreased from populations of about 215,000 to less than 800. Many survivors of the Holocaust had to go through substantial amounts of mental therapy.



BENCHMARK 9: Identify the wartime strategy and post-war plans of the Allied leaders.

Allied leaders:The three main men of the alliance were Franklin Roosevelt (United States), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union), and Winston Churchill (Great Britain)The Axis Powers: This group of leaders included Hitler (Germany), General Hideki Tojo (Japan), and Benito Mussolini (Italy).
The Alliance’s Game Plan: The alliance gathered together for a meeting referred to as the Yalta Conference in 1945. Their mutual primary goal was to defeat the axis powers and win the war, but to do so, they’d have to come up with some present and post- war plans:
s
  • First attack and defeat Germany then go after the Empire of Japan. ·
  • Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Post war, Germany and Berlin would be divided into four occupied zones.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany caused its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.


BENCHMARK 10: Summarize the causes and effects of President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.


Truman’s Deadly Decision:
On April 12th 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt died of a stroke. Harry S. Truman
became President of the United States of America. His choices in regards to handling the
war caused more pressure upon the president than ever. He saw that the war needed to be ended quickly. Japan was asked to surrender but rejected the warnings. He was forced to take action and end the war.


“Little Boy” and “Fat Man”
The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The first bomb named, Little
Boy, was dropped on August 6th, 1945 on a city called Hiroshima. Little Boy killed
140,000 people within 4 months of the bombing. The initial impact of the nuclear bomb on the city didn’t kill 140,000. There was a cloud of nuclear radiation that followed the explosion. The intensified radiation and immense heat caused genetic mutation, poisoning, diseases and most clearly, death. Little Boy was the first nuclear weapon to be used in war. The United States had dropped a test bomb called trinity earlier that year. Three days later, on the 9th, the United States dropped another bomb. Fat Boy was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan by the plane, Enola Gay. The attack killed about 40,000 people. Many more would have died on both sides if the United States were forced to invade Japan and make them surrender.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization and denazification.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany dished out on its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.




BENCHMARK 11: Describe the effects of World War II.

Germany's defeat:
Totally defeated, Germany's cities were completely destroyed by bombing campaigns. The Nazi regime was completely shut down, and Germany was then divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, awaiting a more lasting political settlement. While the first plans of the United States for Germany were very harsh, they were eased down after it was realized that the recovery of Europe was not possible without the recovery of the German industrial base first.

Chaos due to the war:
Japan and Europe were in ruins from extensive bombing. England was absolutely devastated by the bombings of the German blitz. Millions of people died because of WWII, and even more left homeless. As many as 24,000,000 soldiers and 49,000,000 civilians lost their lives on both the sides. The Cold War was also triggered from World War II, which did not end until 1991. Even China lost 8.2 million from their war with Japan.

The upsides of the war (That's right, it's not all bad):
World War II marked the end of dictatorship in Europe, and made the United States and Soviet Union the super powers of the world. It also produced the foundation of the United Nations, an organization invented to promote peace and security across the globe. The Paris Peace treaty, which allowed other European counties like Bulgaria, Italy, Finland, and more join the United Nations.
In America alone, the numerous jobs created during the war brought an end to the crisis of unemployment during the Great Depression. America's economy substantially improved by the war, and the depression slowed to a complete halt. Although there were many helpful results of the war, the devastation outnumbered it all.



Benchmark 1: Analyze the causes of World War I including the formation of European alliances and the roles of imperialism, nationalism, and militarism.
The Start of WW1
Before World War I many European countries had alliances with each other. If one nation happened to be attacked then their alliances helped out. The war started right after an Austrian-Hungarian archduke, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian. Their country declared war on Siberia, and then the alliances began to spread across European nations. Imperialism began when the greater alliances beat the enemy nations. The Victor gained land, soldiers, and supplies.

Germany had a bit of an advantage during World War I. Germany’s military had increased greatly over their enemies. Countries like Germany strategized their attacks, so if a nation invaded their land they could easily defend and defeat their foes. Most leaders of the European nations were great nationalists. If attacked, most nations would strike back hard. Countries were also very loyal to their alliances. If an ally was in trouble nations would help attack the enemy. The start of World War I began from a chain-like effect of one man killing another. The nationalism and pride of the European countries and their alliances continued the war.

Benchmark 2: Describe the changing nature of warfare during World War I.
The changing nature of warfare during World War I

During World War I technology and warfare had changed greatly compared to the other wars. The amount of artillery and its damages had increased greatly. In WWI, the nations used strategies including the use of three types of combat; aerial, ground, ocean-based attacks.

LOOK! It’s a Bird... It’s a Plane...YES it’s a Plane...With a Big Gun.

Aerial combat began during WWI; at first planes were used to carry equipment and supplies, but then pilots began to add machine guns for protection. The Germans used a blimp, called The Zeppelin, to carry and drop bombs on their enemies, yet the blimp was easily destroyed due to the opposing bullets ripping the surface of the blimp (quite like popping a balloon). The use of aircraft was advancing greatly during this time. Planes did have an effect on the war happening on the ground. Bomber planes could easily take out enemy soldiers, tanks, and bases. Ground combat was more strategized than ever during this war. Soldiers began to use powerful weapons in battle, yet rifles and other weapons were still used in the trench wars.

· Real-Life Battleship™
The war in the ocean had two sides; on the sea, which included warships, and below the sea, which included submarines. The ships used in WWI were considerably large. The battleships contained many soldiers and many turrets. Carrier ships were used to defend and launch air crafts. Below the sea navies would use submarines to sneak up on enemies. The submarines could launch torpedoes, and also be used at sea level as well. There were a few ways to defend from these attacks. Nations would place mines in certain locations of the sea. Also they used technology called radar to spot large object coming by them.

Benchmark 3: Summarize significant effects of World War I

WW1 had a large effect on the world. The war gave new leagues and Treaties, as well as governmental changes. This was the start of a different era.

Questioning the Government

The minds of the political leaders throughout different nations had changed greatly. European people and governments began to switch political parties. In some countries, especially the United States, Women’s rights and privileges changed greatly as well. Governments began to give women the right to vote. Women gained major roles in weapon development, food and clothes supply, and other industries.

New Leagues and Treaties

Some countries around the world started a collaboration called the League of Nations. The league’s failures started out small but gradually help the start of World War II. The league’s goals were to prevent war by disarmament and collective security throughout the league, and settling international disputes of the law. The Allies victory forced Germany to sign The Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. The Treaty of Versailles was an act that stated that Germany was responsible for the start of World War I. Parts of Germany had to pay for war damages. This caused Germany to lose great amounts of money, which meant loss and rations of food supply and other essential products. This caused many Germans to die of starvation and helpless diseases. Germany became very weak and aching for someone to take lead.



Benchmark 4- Describe the causes and effects of the German economic crisis of the 1920s and the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression.
WE’RE BROKE
1920’s (German Crisis)

Once the Axis had lost World War I, their nations had to pay a great debt for the cause of the war. The Treaty of Versailles caused great grief for Germany. They were forced to pay enormous amounts for the reparation of France and Great Britain. Germany was forced to give 15% of their land. Germany’s economy fell and then large amounts of Germans died of starvation and illnesses. They became very vulnerable for an individual, such as Adolf Hitler to rank up and rise to power.

1930’s (Great Depression)

The Great depression was a drastic world-wide economic failure. There are still some who question how it transpired. The crash of the stock market was a key component to the fall of global economic depression. Profits and prices dropped on all demands and every essential product. There are two main views on how the Great depression ended. Many countries had already broken out of the depression but the US was still suffering from it. It started to get better once the United States entered World War II. The United States government created organizations that helped brings the people back into the economy. Works Progress Administration (WPA) was an effective program. The W.P.A. gave people the chance to work on common matters, such as public roads, schools, building, and other places the economy back in order.


Benchmark 5- Describe the rise of authoritarian governments in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Spain, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco.
Rising totalitarians

Joseph Stalin- In 1924, Stalin gained control of the Soviet Union government. His goals were to increase growth of large industries and farm production. Stalin created a new type of government called a totalitarian state. He was not a just leader; he forced his laws on the citizens. Stalin used brutal force on many low-class citizens who opposed the change.

Benito Mussolini- Mussolini was head of a group called the Black Shirts in Italy. They were against communism. He led a March on Rome 1922 to prevent a communist outbreak. The government in Italy became frightened and appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. He continued to gain power in many ways. Mussolini had secret police monitoring the citizens, gave loyal Fascists head offices, and controlled the press and banned criticism of the government. A Fascist is a supporter of racism and dictatorship by the means of complete governmental and economical control.
Adolf Hitler- Hitler became head of the Nazi-party in the 1920’s.He won large support by blaming the Jews for their economic troubles and the loss of World War I. The Great Depression caused many to follow the Nazi-party. Hitler became dictator of Germany in 1933. Hitler plotted to bring democracy to an end in Germany. He used some of the same methods as Stalin and Mussolini to control Germany. He forced harsh laws on Jews. His idea to end unemployment was to limit wages and prices. Hitler also banned any outburst of public speech and started building programs. The Treaty of Versailles did little to stop Hitler from increasing his military.

BENCHMARK 6: Analyze the restriction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against populations in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and occupied territories.

Humiliation of Jews:
Oppression of ethnic and social minorities in Germany and other occupied countries shipped daily to concentration camps during World War II mainly focused with Jews were required to wear a yellow badge and the rest were kept in walled ghettos, where they remained isolated from the general populace.

Nazis and the Jewish Question:
In January 1942, Nazis edited the plans for Final Solutions of the Jewish
Question, which was Nazi Germany's policy to exterminate European Jews. From that point on until the end of the war approximately six million Jews and other minorities were brutally murdered. The Nazis' aggressive war strategy for living space in eastern Europe was said to “defend Western Civilization against the Bolshevism of sub-humans” by coherently killing all that were considered unworthy enough (which not only included Jews, but homosexuals, Slavs, and political prisoners, too.)

Jewish relocation:
Millions of Jews were sent to relocation camps, which are largely know as concentration camps. The name originated from when Nazis started moving or relocating jews and others to different areas. These relocation camps were soon not just a new home to jews, they were their last homes. More than ten million people around Europe were forced into labor. Many died relocating, were worked to death, and thousands were forced into extermination camps. 2.5 million Non-Jewish citizens of occupied territories died as a result of genocide, forced labor or starvation.



Short timeline of Nazis involved with Soviets in the war.

The German army reaches the city of Brest-Litovsk on the Polish border with the Soviet Union.
Sep 17th, 1939
The German Army captures Kiev, the Ukrainian capital in the Soviet Union.
Sep 20th, 1941
The German Army advances on Moscow.
Oct 6th , 1941
Red Army recaptures the city of Kursk in the Soviet Union.
Feb 8th, 1943




BENCHMARK #7: Trace the causes and key events related to World War II.

What started the mess:
World War II began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland.
Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex.

Revenge from the first war:
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.
Woodrow Wilson wanted a treaty based on his 14-point plan which he believed would bring peace to Europe.
Georges Clemenceau wanted revenge. He wanted to be sure that Germany could never start another war again.

A compromise between the two:
Lloyd George personally agreed with Wilson but knew that the British public agreed with Clemenceau. He tried to find a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau.

An undesirable surprise:
Germany had been expecting a treaty based on Wilson's 14 points and were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, they had no choice but to sign the document.
The mandatory request for the Germans:
· War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War I.
· Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war.
· Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland area was to be de-militarized.
· Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. Aeschylus (union with Austria) was forbidden.

Drastic times call for drastic measures (and drastic people):
The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. Germany could not afford to pay the money because during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. People were
dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. His name was Adolf Hitler.

BENCHMARK 8: Explain the causes, events, and effects of the Holocaust (1933-1945) including its roots in the long tradition of anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews and other victims

Causes:
Hitler killed 6 million Jewish people because he said he believed that they caused economic crisis. He believed this because Jewish people believe in the Old Testament. Jewish bankers also didn't see anything wrong with charging interest on people who use their money. This, in many people’s opinions, caused a depression in Germany’s economy of socialism. Jews were also not an Aryan race (Blond hair, blue eyes)

Events:
  • Euthanasia Programs-1939: This was German’s first program of mass murder; it was where the Nazi soldiers of Germany killed the ill living hospitalized. Although euthanasia usually meant the painless killing of terminally ill patients who would suffer more if they were alive, Nazi’s term was far more violent than that, where they’d ship all ills off to euthanasia camps to be killed.

  • Nuremberg laws-1935: This was a set of laws that restricted Jewish rights. The laws included that Jewish civilians had to wear the Star of David on clothes and were banned from many places around towns. Jews were also not allowed to marry or have relationships with any citizens of German or kindred blood, and Jewish people were forbidden to display the Reich and national colors and flag in any form.

  • Kristallnacht-1938: Nazi soldiers invaded the villages of Jewish people, breaking any personal possessions of value they could find (where the name ‘crystal night’ originates from.) they even took some of the males of the family. This pogrom was a series of organized attacks and massacres throughout Austria and Nazi Germany.

  • Transported to ghettos: Transported to ghettos- Millions of Jewish families were shipped to isolated ghettos, and had to live there for years, some were killed randomly, or were transported to concentration/extermination camps. All were either killed, lived in fear, or worked and starved to death. Nazis established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied divisions of Poland and the Soviet Union alone. German occupation authorities created the first ghetto in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland in October of 1939.

  • Death march-1944: when the Jewish society were moved the camps to central Germany because soviet union and U.S. were closing in. A majority died on the march.

Effects:
This event was one of the cruelest, racist, and inhuman events in
the history of mankind, and affected millions of people. It induced death,
physical and mental harm, and life changing experiences to many people. Surprisingly,
during this time most would turn a blind eye at the suffering and pain these people
would go through. Martin Niemöller once said, apropos the ignorance of all the citizens, saying "First they came for the communists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me."
Despite the lack of attention to the horrific events, two thirds of the Jewish population in Europe was killed; over six million innocent lives were annihilated. Communities where there an existential amount of Jews previous to the war vanished post WWII. Jewish communities decreased from populations of about 215,000 to less than 800. Many survivors of the Holocaust had to go through substantial amounts of mental therapy.



BENCHMARK 9: Identify the wartime strategy and post-war plans of the Allied leaders.

Allied leaders:The three main men of the alliance were Franklin Roosevelt (United States), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union), and Winston Churchill (Great Britain)The Axis Powers: This group of leaders included Hitler (Germany), General Hideki Tojo (Japan), and Benito Mussolini (Italy).
The Alliance’s Game Plan: The alliance gathered together for a meeting referred to as the Yalta Conference in 1945. Their mutual primary goal was to defeat the axis powers and win the war, but to do so, they’d have to come up with some present and post- war plans:
s
  • First attack and defeat Germany then go after the Empire of Japan. ·
  • Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Post war, Germany and Berlin would be divided into four occupied zones.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany caused its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.


BENCHMARK 10: Summarize the causes and effects of President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.


Truman’s Deadly Decision:
On April 12th 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt died of a stroke. Harry S. Truman
became President of the United States of America. His choices in regards to handling the
war caused more pressure upon the president than ever. He saw that the war needed to be ended quickly. Japan was asked to surrender but rejected the warnings. He was forced to take action and end the war.


“Little Boy” and “Fat Man”
The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The first bomb named, Little
Boy, was dropped on August 6th, 1945 on a city called Hiroshima. Little Boy killed
140,000 people within 4 months of the bombing. The initial impact of the nuclear bomb on the city didn’t kill 140,000. There was a cloud of nuclear radiation that followed the explosion. The intensified radiation and immense heat caused genetic mutation, poisoning, diseases and most clearly, death. Little Boy was the first nuclear weapon to be used in war. The United States had dropped a test bomb called trinity earlier that year. Three days later, on the 9th, the United States dropped another bomb. Fat Boy was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan by the plane, Enola Gay. The attack killed about 40,000 people. Many more would have died on both sides if the United States were forced to invade Japan and make them surrender.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization and denazification.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany dished out on its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.




BENCHMARK 11: Describe the effects of World War II.

Germany's defeat:
Totally defeated, Germany's cities were completely destroyed by bombing campaigns. The Nazi regime was completely shut down, and Germany was then divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, awaiting a more lasting political settlement. While the first plans of the United States for Germany were very harsh, they were eased down after it was realized that the recovery of Europe was not possible without the recovery of the German industrial base first.

Chaos due to the war:
Japan and Europe were in ruins from extensive bombing. England was absolutely devastated by the bombings of the German blitz. Millions of people died because of WWII, and even more left homeless. As many as 24,000,000 soldiers and 49,000,000 civilians lost their lives on both the sides. The Cold War was also triggered from World War II, which did not end until 1991. Even China lost 8.2 million from their war with Japan.

The upsides of the war (That's right, it's not all bad):
World War II marked the end of dictatorship in Europe, and made the United States and Soviet Union the super powers of the world. It also produced the foundation of the United Nations, an organization invented to promote peace and security across the globe. The Paris Peace treaty, which allowed other European counties like Bulgaria, Italy, Finland, and more join the United Nations.
In America alone, the numerous jobs created during the war brought an end to the crisis of unemployment during the Great Depression. America's economy substantially improved by the war, and the depression slowed to a complete halt. Although there were many helpful results of the war, the devastation outnumbered it all.



Benchmark 1: Analyze the causes of World War I including the formation of European alliances and the roles of imperialism, nationalism, and militarism.
The Start of WW1
Before World War I many European countries had alliances with each other. If one nation happened to be attacked then their alliances helped out. The war started right after an Austrian-Hungarian archduke, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian. Their country declared war on Siberia, and then the alliances began to spread across European nations. Imperialism began when the greater alliances beat the enemy nations. The Victor gained land, soldiers, and supplies.

Germany had a bit of an advantage during World War I. Germany’s military had increased greatly over their enemies. Countries like Germany strategized their attacks, so if a nation invaded their land they could easily defend and defeat their foes. Most leaders of the European nations were great nationalists. If attacked, most nations would strike back hard. Countries were also very loyal to their alliances. If an ally was in trouble nations would help attack the enemy. The start of World War I began from a chain-like effect of one man killing another. The nationalism and pride of the European countries and their alliances continued the war.

Benchmark 2: Describe the changing nature of warfare during World War I.
The changing nature of warfare during World War I

During World War I technology and warfare had changed greatly compared to the other wars. The amount of artillery and its damages had increased greatly. In WWI, the nations used strategies including the use of three types of combat; aerial, ground, ocean-based attacks.

LOOK! It’s a Bird... It’s a Plane...YES it’s a Plane...With a Big Gun.

Aerial combat began during WWI; at first planes were used to carry equipment and supplies, but then pilots began to add machine guns for protection. The Germans used a blimp, called The Zeppelin, to carry and drop bombs on their enemies, yet the blimp was easily destroyed due to the opposing bullets ripping the surface of the blimp (quite like popping a balloon). The use of aircraft was advancing greatly during this time. Planes did have an effect on the war happening on the ground. Bomber planes could easily take out enemy soldiers, tanks, and bases. Ground combat was more strategized than ever during this war. Soldiers began to use powerful weapons in battle, yet rifles and other weapons were still used in the trench wars.

· Real-Life Battleship™
The war in the ocean had two sides; on the sea, which included warships, and below the sea, which included submarines. The ships used in WWI were considerably large. The battleships contained many soldiers and many turrets. Carrier ships were used to defend and launch air crafts. Below the sea navies would use submarines to sneak up on enemies. The submarines could launch torpedoes, and also be used at sea level as well. There were a few ways to defend from these attacks. Nations would place mines in certain locations of the sea. Also they used technology called radar to spot large object coming by them.

Benchmark 3: Summarize significant effects of World War I

WW1 had a large effect on the world. The war gave new leagues and Treaties, as well as governmental changes. This was the start of a different era.

Questioning the Government

The minds of the political leaders throughout different nations had changed greatly. European people and governments began to switch political parties. In some countries, especially the United States, Women’s rights and privileges changed greatly as well. Governments began to give women the right to vote. Women gained major roles in weapon development, food and clothes supply, and other industries.

New Leagues and Treaties

Some countries around the world started a collaboration called the League of Nations. The league’s failures started out small but gradually help the start of World War II. The league’s goals were to prevent war by disarmament and collective security throughout the league, and settling international disputes of the law. The Allies victory forced Germany to sign The Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. The Treaty of Versailles was an act that stated that Germany was responsible for the start of World War I. Parts of Germany had to pay for war damages. This caused Germany to lose great amounts of money, which meant loss and rations of food supply and other essential products. This caused many Germans to die of starvation and helpless diseases. Germany became very weak and aching for someone to take lead.



Benchmark 4- Describe the causes and effects of the German economic crisis of the 1920s and the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression.
WE’RE BROKE
1920’s (German Crisis)

Once the Axis had lost World War I, their nations had to pay a great debt for the cause of the war. The Treaty of Versailles caused great grief for Germany. They were forced to pay enormous amounts for the reparation of France and Great Britain. Germany was forced to give 15% of their land. Germany’s economy fell and then large amounts of Germans died of starvation and illnesses. They became very vulnerable for an individual, such as Adolf Hitler to rank up and rise to power.

1930’s (Great Depression)

The Great depression was a drastic world-wide economic failure. There are still some who question how it transpired. The crash of the stock market was a key component to the fall of global economic depression. Profits and prices dropped on all demands and every essential product. There are two main views on how the Great depression ended. Many countries had already broken out of the depression but the US was still suffering from it. It started to get better once the United States entered World War II. The United States government created organizations that helped brings the people back into the economy. Works Progress Administration (WPA) was an effective program. The W.P.A. gave people the chance to work on common matters, such as public roads, schools, building, and other places the economy back in order.


Benchmark 5- Describe the rise of authoritarian governments in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Spain, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco.
Rising totalitarians

Joseph Stalin- In 1924, Stalin gained control of the Soviet Union government. His goals were to increase growth of large industries and farm production. Stalin created a new type of government called a totalitarian state. He was not a just leader; he forced his laws on the citizens. Stalin used brutal force on many low-class citizens who opposed the change.

Benito Mussolini- Mussolini was head of a group called the Black Shirts in Italy. They were against communism. He led a March on Rome 1922 to prevent a communist outbreak. The government in Italy became frightened and appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. He continued to gain power in many ways. Mussolini had secret police monitoring the citizens, gave loyal Fascists head offices, and controlled the press and banned criticism of the government. A Fascist is a supporter of racism and dictatorship by the means of complete governmental and economical control.
Adolf Hitler- Hitler became head of the Nazi-party in the 1920’s.He won large support by blaming the Jews for their economic troubles and the loss of World War I. The Great Depression caused many to follow the Nazi-party. Hitler became dictator of Germany in 1933. Hitler plotted to bring democracy to an end in Germany. He used some of the same methods as Stalin and Mussolini to control Germany. He forced harsh laws on Jews. His idea to end unemployment was to limit wages and prices. Hitler also banned any outburst of public speech and started building programs. The Treaty of Versailles did little to stop Hitler from increasing his military.

BENCHMARK 6: Analyze the restriction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against populations in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and occupied territories.

Humiliation of Jews:
Oppression of ethnic and social minorities in Germany and other occupied countries shipped daily to concentration camps during World War II mainly focused with Jews were required to wear a yellow badge and the rest were kept in walled ghettos, where they remained isolated from the general populace.

Nazis and the Jewish Question:
In January 1942, Nazis edited the plans for Final Solutions of the Jewish
Question, which was Nazi Germany's policy to exterminate European Jews. From that point on until the end of the war approximately six million Jews and other minorities were brutally murdered. The Nazis' aggressive war strategy for living space in eastern Europe was said to “defend Western Civilization against the Bolshevism of sub-humans” by coherently killing all that were considered unworthy enough (which not only included Jews, but homosexuals, Slavs, and political prisoners, too.)

Jewish relocation:
Millions of Jews were sent to relocation camps, which are largely know as concentration camps. The name originated from when Nazis started moving or relocating jews and others to different areas. These relocation camps were soon not just a new home to jews, they were their last homes. More than ten million people around Europe were forced into labor. Many died relocating, were worked to death, and thousands were forced into extermination camps. 2.5 million Non-Jewish citizens of occupied territories died as a result of genocide, forced labor or starvation.



Short timeline of Nazis involved with Soviets in the war.

The German army reaches the city of Brest-Litovsk on the Polish border with the Soviet Union.
Sep 17th, 1939
The German Army captures Kiev, the Ukrainian capital in the Soviet Union.
Sep 20th, 1941
The German Army advances on Moscow.
Oct 6th , 1941
Red Army recaptures the city of Kursk in the Soviet Union.
Feb 8th, 1943




BENCHMARK #7: Trace the causes and key events related to World War II.

What started the mess:
World War II began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland.
Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex.

Revenge from the first war:
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.
Woodrow Wilson wanted a treaty based on his 14-point plan which he believed would bring peace to Europe.
Georges Clemenceau wanted revenge. He wanted to be sure that Germany could never start another war again.

A compromise between the two:
Lloyd George personally agreed with Wilson but knew that the British public agreed with Clemenceau. He tried to find a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau.

An undesirable surprise:
Germany had been expecting a treaty based on Wilson's 14 points and were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, they had no choice but to sign the document.
The mandatory request for the Germans:
· War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War I.
· Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war.
· Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland area was to be de-militarized.
· Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. Aeschylus (union with Austria) was forbidden.

Drastic times call for drastic measures (and drastic people):
The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. Germany could not afford to pay the money because during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. People were
dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. His name was Adolf Hitler.

BENCHMARK 8: Explain the causes, events, and effects of the Holocaust (1933-1945) including its roots in the long tradition of anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews and other victims

Causes:
Hitler killed 6 million Jewish people because he said he believed that they caused economic crisis. He believed this because Jewish people believe in the Old Testament. Jewish bankers also didn't see anything wrong with charging interest on people who use their money. This, in many people’s opinions, caused a depression in Germany’s economy of socialism. Jews were also not an Aryan race (Blond hair, blue eyes)

Events:
  • Euthanasia Programs-1939: This was German’s first program of mass murder; it was where the Nazi soldiers of Germany killed the ill living hospitalized. Although euthanasia usually meant the painless killing of terminally ill patients who would suffer more if they were alive, Nazi’s term was far more violent than that, where they’d ship all ills off to euthanasia camps to be killed.

  • Nuremberg laws-1935: This was a set of laws that restricted Jewish rights. The laws included that Jewish civilians had to wear the Star of David on clothes and were banned from many places around towns. Jews were also not allowed to marry or have relationships with any citizens of German or kindred blood, and Jewish people were forbidden to display the Reich and national colors and flag in any form.

  • Kristallnacht-1938: Nazi soldiers invaded the villages of Jewish people, breaking any personal possessions of value they could find (where the name ‘crystal night’ originates from.) they even took some of the males of the family. This pogrom was a series of organized attacks and massacres throughout Austria and Nazi Germany.

  • Transported to ghettos: Transported to ghettos- Millions of Jewish families were shipped to isolated ghettos, and had to live there for years, some were killed randomly, or were transported to concentration/extermination camps. All were either killed, lived in fear, or worked and starved to death. Nazis established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied divisions of Poland and the Soviet Union alone. German occupation authorities created the first ghetto in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland in October of 1939.

  • Death march-1944: when the Jewish society were moved the camps to central Germany because soviet union and U.S. were closing in. A majority died on the march.

Effects:
This event was one of the cruelest, racist, and inhuman events in
the history of mankind, and affected millions of people. It induced death,
physical and mental harm, and life changing experiences to many people. Surprisingly,
during this time most would turn a blind eye at the suffering and pain these people
would go through. Martin Niemöller once said, apropos the ignorance of all the citizens, saying "First they came for the communists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me."
Despite the lack of attention to the horrific events, two thirds of the Jewish population in Europe was killed; over six million innocent lives were annihilated. Communities where there an existential amount of Jews previous to the war vanished post WWII. Jewish communities decreased from populations of about 215,000 to less than 800. Many survivors of the Holocaust had to go through substantial amounts of mental therapy.



BENCHMARK 9: Identify the wartime strategy and post-war plans of the Allied leaders.

Allied leaders:The three main men of the alliance were Franklin Roosevelt (United States), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union), and Winston Churchill (Great Britain)The Axis Powers: This group of leaders included Hitler (Germany), General Hideki Tojo (Japan), and Benito Mussolini (Italy).
The Alliance’s Game Plan: The alliance gathered together for a meeting referred to as the Yalta Conference in 1945. Their mutual primary goal was to defeat the axis powers and win the war, but to do so, they’d have to come up with some present and post- war plans:
s
  • First attack and defeat Germany then go after the Empire of Japan. ·
  • Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Post war, Germany and Berlin would be divided into four occupied zones.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany caused its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.


BENCHMARK 10: Summarize the causes and effects of President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.


Truman’s Deadly Decision:
On April 12th 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt died of a stroke. Harry S. Truman
became President of the United States of America. His choices in regards to handling the
war caused more pressure upon the president than ever. He saw that the war needed to be ended quickly. Japan was asked to surrender but rejected the warnings. He was forced to take action and end the war.


“Little Boy” and “Fat Man”
The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The first bomb named, Little
Boy, was dropped on August 6th, 1945 on a city called Hiroshima. Little Boy killed
140,000 people within 4 months of the bombing. The initial impact of the nuclear bomb on the city didn’t kill 140,000. There was a cloud of nuclear radiation that followed the explosion. The intensified radiation and immense heat caused genetic mutation, poisoning, diseases and most clearly, death. Little Boy was the first nuclear weapon to be used in war. The United States had dropped a test bomb called trinity earlier that year. Three days later, on the 9th, the United States dropped another bomb. Fat Boy was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan by the plane, Enola Gay. The attack killed about 40,000 people. Many more would have died on both sides if the United States were forced to invade Japan and make them surrender.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization and denazification.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany dished out on its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.




BENCHMARK 11: Describe the effects of World War II.

Germany's defeat:
Totally defeated, Germany's cities were completely destroyed by bombing campaigns. The Nazi regime was completely shut down, and Germany was then divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, awaiting a more lasting political settlement. While the first plans of the United States for Germany were very harsh, they were eased down after it was realized that the recovery of Europe was not possible without the recovery of the German industrial base first.

Chaos due to the war:
Japan and Europe were in ruins from extensive bombing. England was absolutely devastated by the bombings of the German blitz. Millions of people died because of WWII, and even more left homeless. As many as 24,000,000 soldiers and 49,000,000 civilians lost their lives on both the sides. The Cold War was also triggered from World War II, which did not end until 1991. Even China lost 8.2 million from their war with Japan.

The upsides of the war (That's right, it's not all bad):
World War II marked the end of dictatorship in Europe, and made the United States and Soviet Union the super powers of the world. It also produced the foundation of the United Nations, an organization invented to promote peace and security across the globe. The Paris Peace treaty, which allowed other European counties like Bulgaria, Italy, Finland, and more join the United Nations.
In America alone, the numerous jobs created during the war brought an end to the crisis of unemployment during the Great Depression. America's economy substantially improved by the war, and the depression slowed to a complete halt. Although there were many helpful results of the war, the devastation outnumbered it all.



Benchmark 1: Analyze the causes of World War I including the formation of European alliances and the roles of imperialism, nationalism, and militarism.
The Start of WW1
Before World War I many European countries had alliances with each other. If one nation happened to be attacked then their alliances helped out. The war started right after an Austrian-Hungarian archduke, Franz Ferdinand, and his wife were assassinated by a Bosnian. Their country declared war on Siberia, and then the alliances began to spread across European nations. Imperialism began when the greater alliances beat the enemy nations. The Victor gained land, soldiers, and supplies.

Germany had a bit of an advantage during World War I. Germany’s military had increased greatly over their enemies. Countries like Germany strategized their attacks, so if a nation invaded their land they could easily defend and defeat their foes. Most leaders of the European nations were great nationalists. If attacked, most nations would strike back hard. Countries were also very loyal to their alliances. If an ally was in trouble nations would help attack the enemy. The start of World War I began from a chain-like effect of one man killing another. The nationalism and pride of the European countries and their alliances continued the war.

Benchmark 2: Describe the changing nature of warfare during World War I.
The changing nature of warfare during World War I

During World War I technology and warfare had changed greatly compared to the other wars. The amount of artillery and its damages had increased greatly. In WWI, the nations used strategies including the use of three types of combat; aerial, ground, ocean-based attacks.

LOOK! It’s a Bird... It’s a Plane...YES it’s a Plane...With a Big Gun.

Aerial combat began during WWI; at first planes were used to carry equipment and supplies, but then pilots began to add machine guns for protection. The Germans used a blimp, called The Zeppelin, to carry and drop bombs on their enemies, yet the blimp was easily destroyed due to the opposing bullets ripping the surface of the blimp (quite like popping a balloon). The use of aircraft was advancing greatly during this time. Planes did have an effect on the war happening on the ground. Bomber planes could easily take out enemy soldiers, tanks, and bases. Ground combat was more strategized than ever during this war. Soldiers began to use powerful weapons in battle, yet rifles and other weapons were still used in the trench wars.

· Real-Life Battleship™
The war in the ocean had two sides; on the sea, which included warships, and below the sea, which included submarines. The ships used in WWI were considerably large. The battleships contained many soldiers and many turrets. Carrier ships were used to defend and launch air crafts. Below the sea navies would use submarines to sneak up on enemies. The submarines could launch torpedoes, and also be used at sea level as well. There were a few ways to defend from these attacks. Nations would place mines in certain locations of the sea. Also they used technology called radar to spot large object coming by them.

Benchmark 3: Summarize significant effects of World War I

WW1 had a large effect on the world. The war gave new leagues and Treaties, as well as governmental changes. This was the start of a different era.

Questioning the Government

The minds of the political leaders throughout different nations had changed greatly. European people and governments began to switch political parties. In some countries, especially the United States, Women’s rights and privileges changed greatly as well. Governments began to give women the right to vote. Women gained major roles in weapon development, food and clothes supply, and other industries.

New Leagues and Treaties

Some countries around the world started a collaboration called the League of Nations. The league’s failures started out small but gradually help the start of World War II. The league’s goals were to prevent war by disarmament and collective security throughout the league, and settling international disputes of the law. The Allies victory forced Germany to sign The Treaty of Versailles on June 28th, 1919. The Treaty of Versailles was an act that stated that Germany was responsible for the start of World War I. Parts of Germany had to pay for war damages. This caused Germany to lose great amounts of money, which meant loss and rations of food supply and other essential products. This caused many Germans to die of starvation and helpless diseases. Germany became very weak and aching for someone to take lead.



Benchmark 4- Describe the causes and effects of the German economic crisis of the 1920s and the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression.
WE’RE BROKE
1920’s (German Crisis)

Once the Axis had lost World War I, their nations had to pay a great debt for the cause of the war. The Treaty of Versailles caused great grief for Germany. They were forced to pay enormous amounts for the reparation of France and Great Britain. Germany was forced to give 15% of their land. Germany’s economy fell and then large amounts of Germans died of starvation and illnesses. They became very vulnerable for an individual, such as Adolf Hitler to rank up and rise to power.

1930’s (Great Depression)

The Great depression was a drastic world-wide economic failure. There are still some who question how it transpired. The crash of the stock market was a key component to the fall of global economic depression. Profits and prices dropped on all demands and every essential product. There are two main views on how the Great depression ended. Many countries had already broken out of the depression but the US was still suffering from it. It started to get better once the United States entered World War II. The United States government created organizations that helped brings the people back into the economy. Works Progress Administration (WPA) was an effective program. The W.P.A. gave people the chance to work on common matters, such as public roads, schools, building, and other places the economy back in order.


Benchmark 5- Describe the rise of authoritarian governments in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Spain, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco.
Rising totalitarians

Joseph Stalin- In 1924, Stalin gained control of the Soviet Union government. His goals were to increase growth of large industries and farm production. Stalin created a new type of government called a totalitarian state. He was not a just leader; he forced his laws on the citizens. Stalin used brutal force on many low-class citizens who opposed the change.

Benito Mussolini- Mussolini was head of a group called the Black Shirts in Italy. They were against communism. He led a March on Rome 1922 to prevent a communist outbreak. The government in Italy became frightened and appointed Mussolini as Prime Minister. He continued to gain power in many ways. Mussolini had secret police monitoring the citizens, gave loyal Fascists head offices, and controlled the press and banned criticism of the government. A Fascist is a supporter of racism and dictatorship by the means of complete governmental and economical control.
Adolf Hitler- Hitler became head of the Nazi-party in the 1920’s.He won large support by blaming the Jews for their economic troubles and the loss of World War I. The Great Depression caused many to follow the Nazi-party. Hitler became dictator of Germany in 1933. Hitler plotted to bring democracy to an end in Germany. He used some of the same methods as Stalin and Mussolini to control Germany. He forced harsh laws on Jews. His idea to end unemployment was to limit wages and prices. Hitler also banned any outburst of public speech and started building programs. The Treaty of Versailles did little to stop Hitler from increasing his military.

BENCHMARK 6: Analyze the restriction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against populations in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and occupied territories.

Humiliation of Jews:
Oppression of ethnic and social minorities in Germany and other occupied countries shipped daily to concentration camps during World War II mainly focused with Jews were required to wear a yellow badge and the rest were kept in walled ghettos, where they remained isolated from the general populace.

Nazis and the Jewish Question:
In January 1942, Nazis edited the plans for Final Solutions of the Jewish
Question, which was Nazi Germany's policy to exterminate European Jews. From that point on until the end of the war approximately six million Jews and other minorities were brutally murdered. The Nazis' aggressive war strategy for living space in eastern Europe was said to “defend Western Civilization against the Bolshevism of sub-humans” by coherently killing all that were considered unworthy enough (which not only included Jews, but homosexuals, Slavs, and political prisoners, too.)

Jewish relocation:
Millions of Jews were sent to relocation camps, which are largely know as concentration camps. The name originated from when Nazis started moving or relocating jews and others to different areas. These relocation camps were soon not just a new home to jews, they were their last homes. More than ten million people around Europe were forced into labor. Many died relocating, were worked to death, and thousands were forced into extermination camps. 2.5 million Non-Jewish citizens of occupied territories died as a result of genocide, forced labor or starvation.



Short timeline of Nazis involved with Soviets in the war.

The German army reaches the city of Brest-Litovsk on the Polish border with the Soviet Union.
Sep 17th, 1939
The German Army captures Kiev, the Ukrainian capital in the Soviet Union.
Sep 20th, 1941
The German Army advances on Moscow.
Oct 6th , 1941
Red Army recaptures the city of Kursk in the Soviet Union.
Feb 8th, 1943




BENCHMARK #7: Trace the causes and key events related to World War II.

What started the mess:
World War II began in September 1939 when Britain and France declared war on Germany following Germany's invasion of Poland.
Although the outbreak of war was triggered by Germany's invasion of Poland, the causes of the war are more complex.

Revenge from the first war:
In 1919, Lloyd George of England, Orlando of Italy, Clemenceau of France and Woodrow Wilson from the US met to discuss how Germany was to be made to pay for the damage world war one had caused.
Woodrow Wilson wanted a treaty based on his 14-point plan which he believed would bring peace to Europe.
Georges Clemenceau wanted revenge. He wanted to be sure that Germany could never start another war again.

A compromise between the two:
Lloyd George personally agreed with Wilson but knew that the British public agreed with Clemenceau. He tried to find a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau.

An undesirable surprise:
Germany had been expecting a treaty based on Wilson's 14 points and were not happy with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. However, they had no choice but to sign the document.
The mandatory request for the Germans:
· War Guilt Clause - Germany should accept the blame for starting World War I.
· Reparations - Germany had to pay £6,600 million for the damage caused by the war.
· Disarmament - Germany was only allowed to have a small army and six naval ships. No tanks, no air force and no submarines were allowed. The Rhineland area was to be de-militarized.
· Territorial Clauses - Land was taken away from Germany and given to other countries. Aeschylus (union with Austria) was forbidden.

Drastic times call for drastic measures (and drastic people):
The German people were very unhappy about the treaty and thought that it was too harsh. Germany could not afford to pay the money because during the 1920s the people in Germany were very poor. There were not many jobs and the price of food and basic goods was high. People were
dissatisfied with the government and voted to power a man who promised to rip up the Treaty of Versailles. His name was Adolf Hitler.

BENCHMARK 8: Explain the causes, events, and effects of the Holocaust (1933-1945) including its roots in the long tradition of anti-Semitism, 19th century ideas about race and nation, and Nazi dehumanization of the Jews and other victims

Causes:
Hitler killed 6 million Jewish people because he said he believed that they caused economic crisis. He believed this because Jewish people believe in the Old Testament. Jewish bankers also didn't see anything wrong with charging interest on people who use their money. This, in many people’s opinions, caused a depression in Germany’s economy of socialism. Jews were also not an Aryan race (Blond hair, blue eyes)

Events:
  • Euthanasia Programs-1939: This was German’s first program of mass murder; it was where the Nazi soldiers of Germany killed the ill living hospitalized. Although euthanasia usually meant the painless killing of terminally ill patients who would suffer more if they were alive, Nazi’s term was far more violent than that, where they’d ship all ills off to euthanasia camps to be killed.

  • Nuremberg laws-1935: This was a set of laws that restricted Jewish rights. The laws included that Jewish civilians had to wear the Star of David on clothes and were banned from many places around towns. Jews were also not allowed to marry or have relationships with any citizens of German or kindred blood, and Jewish people were forbidden to display the Reich and national colors and flag in any form.

  • Kristallnacht-1938: Nazi soldiers invaded the villages of Jewish people, breaking any personal possessions of value they could find (where the name ‘crystal night’ originates from.) they even took some of the males of the family. This pogrom was a series of organized attacks and massacres throughout Austria and Nazi Germany.

  • Transported to ghettos: Transported to ghettos- Millions of Jewish families were shipped to isolated ghettos, and had to live there for years, some were killed randomly, or were transported to concentration/extermination camps. All were either killed, lived in fear, or worked and starved to death. Nazis established at least 1,000 ghettos in German-occupied divisions of Poland and the Soviet Union alone. German occupation authorities created the first ghetto in Piotrków Trybunalski, Poland in October of 1939.

  • Death march-1944: when the Jewish society were moved the camps to central Germany because soviet union and U.S. were closing in. A majority died on the march.

Effects:
This event was one of the cruelest, racist, and inhuman events in
the history of mankind, and affected millions of people. It induced death,
physical and mental harm, and life changing experiences to many people. Surprisingly,
during this time most would turn a blind eye at the suffering and pain these people
would go through. Martin Niemöller once said, apropos the ignorance of all the citizens, saying "First they came for the communists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak out because I wasn't a Jew.Then they came for me, and there was no one left to speak out for me."
Despite the lack of attention to the horrific events, two thirds of the Jewish population in Europe was killed; over six million innocent lives were annihilated. Communities where there an existential amount of Jews previous to the war vanished post WWII. Jewish communities decreased from populations of about 215,000 to less than 800. Many survivors of the Holocaust had to go through substantial amounts of mental therapy.



BENCHMARK 9: Identify the wartime strategy and post-war plans of the Allied leaders.

Allied leaders:The three main men of the alliance were Franklin Roosevelt (United States), Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union), and Winston Churchill (Great Britain)The Axis Powers: This group of leaders included Hitler (Germany), General Hideki Tojo (Japan), and Benito Mussolini (Italy).
The Alliance’s Game Plan: The alliance gathered together for a meeting referred to as the Yalta Conference in 1945. Their mutual primary goal was to defeat the axis powers and win the war, but to do so, they’d have to come up with some present and post- war plans:
s
  • First attack and defeat Germany then go after the Empire of Japan. ·
  • Unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany. Post war, Germany and Berlin would be divided into four occupied zones.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany caused its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.


BENCHMARK 10: Summarize the causes and effects of President Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan.


Truman’s Deadly Decision:
On April 12th 1945, President Franklin D. Roosevelt died of a stroke. Harry S. Truman
became President of the United States of America. His choices in regards to handling the
war caused more pressure upon the president than ever. He saw that the war needed to be ended quickly. Japan was asked to surrender but rejected the warnings. He was forced to take action and end the war.


“Little Boy” and “Fat Man”
The United States dropped two atomic bombs on Japan. The first bomb named, Little
Boy, was dropped on August 6th, 1945 on a city called Hiroshima. Little Boy killed
140,000 people within 4 months of the bombing. The initial impact of the nuclear bomb on the city didn’t kill 140,000. There was a cloud of nuclear radiation that followed the explosion. The intensified radiation and immense heat caused genetic mutation, poisoning, diseases and most clearly, death. Little Boy was the first nuclear weapon to be used in war. The United States had dropped a test bomb called trinity earlier that year. Three days later, on the 9th, the United States dropped another bomb. Fat Boy was dropped on Nagasaki, Japan by the plane, Enola Gay. The attack killed about 40,000 people. Many more would have died on both sides if the United States were forced to invade Japan and make them surrender.
  • Germany would undertake demilitarization and denazification.
  • They would make a reparation council in the Soviet Union and force Germany to pay reparations to restore the damage Germany dished out on its victims.
  • Freedom and border laws would be set in Poland after WWII.
  • Stalin consented to enter the battle against Japan within 90 days after the defeat of Germany.
  • Nazi war criminals were to be hunted down and brought to justice.
  • Set up a conference to discuss whether or not to divide Germany up into six nations, and how to divide them.




BENCHMARK 11: Describe the effects of World War II.

Germany's defeat:
Totally defeated, Germany's cities were completely destroyed by bombing campaigns. The Nazi regime was completely shut down, and Germany was then divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, awaiting a more lasting political settlement. While the first plans of the United States for Germany were very harsh, they were eased down after it was realized that the recovery of Europe was not possible without the recovery of the German industrial base first.

Chaos due to the war:
Japan and Europe were in ruins from extensive bombing. England was absolutely devastated by the bombings of the German blitz. Millions of people died because of WWII, and even more left homeless. As many as 24,000,000 soldiers and 49,000,000 civilians lost their lives on both the sides. The Cold War was also triggered from World War II, which did not end until 1991. Even China lost 8.2 million from their war with Japan.

The upsides of the war (That's right, it's not all bad):
World War II marked the end of dictatorship in Europe, and made the United States and Soviet Union the super powers of the world. It also produced the foundation of the United Nations, an organization invented to promote peace and security across the globe. The Paris Peace treaty, which allowed other European counties like Bulgaria, Italy, Finland, and more join the United Nations.
In America alone, the numerous jobs created during the war brought an end to the crisis of unemployment during the Great Depression. America's economy substantially improved by the war, and the depression slowed to a complete halt. Although there were many helpful results of the war, the devastation outnumbered it all.