Standard 4: Demonstrate an understanding of the changing role of the United States in world affairs through the end of World War I.

Analyze the major factors that drove United States imperialism

From the late 19th century to early 20th century the United States had an American imperialist group. American was introduced to the Americans in 1899 when the leagues began to be formed. The American anti-imperialist group was also formed around the same time. The American Imperialists believed having one supreme ruler would promote peace. The anti group believed that the U.S should only worry about internal problems instead of external ones from other countries.

The imperialists wanted to enter the war because they thought had control of the countries after the war ended. The anti-imperialist group however did not want to enter the war and thought that the european conflict was not one that the U.S should deal with. The americans used imperialism in many places. They wanted to go into the war being the superpower that won it.

benchmark: Explain the motives of the United States acquisition of the territories.

The United states had motives for taking over many territories. Mainly for power along with economic issues and military issues. the U.S had gained many territories shortly before WW1. Along with Texas, Florida...etc, the U.S had gained control of Hawaii in 1898. Hawaii was an excellent located for naval ships in the pacific ocean. The islands of the Philippines, Puerto rico, and Guam were gained from military victory over Spain.

In 1903, the U.S helped Panama reach independence and along with that they gained control of the Panama Canal. The U.S’s motives were for power and strategic moves for most territories. Imperialism was beginning to take over America and the imperialist group wanted to take over more territories. The U.S was expanding

benchmark:Examine causes, course, and consequences of the Spanish American War.

The Spanish-American War was a war in 1898 between Spain and the United States. After many failed attempts to try and revolt from spanish rule in Cuba, the spanish military set up concentration camps in 1896 in Cuba. Cuba’s rural population was forced to located towns where thousands died. Cuba was determined to fight for full freedom. The majority of Americans did not want war.

With the camps, it inflamed many americans by the “yellow press” which is journalism with little or no research. The USS Maine was a U.S battleship destroyed feb. 15th 1898 in the havana harbor. It killed 260 men. It was one of the main causes of the Spanish-American war.

The war was fought mostly in Cuba. One of the main battles not in Cuba was in the Philippines which was the battle of Manila Bay. America landed in cuba on June 22nd to June 24th. There were many civil war like skirmishes and ground wars. Many Caribbean Naval fights also occurred. The U.S withdrew on August 7, 1898 which was a result from yellow fever. The war was on 10 weeks.


benchmark: Analyze the economic, military, and security motivations of the United States to complete the Panama Canal as well as major obstacles involved in its construction.

The reason for the construction of the Panama Canal was to link the atlantic and pacific oceans. The canal gave a faster and safer route across the ocean. It took over two months to sail from California to New York by Cape Horn. Completing the Panama Canal took off over 8,000 miles of travel between California and New York.

America’s construction began on 1904 and lasted through 1914. One of the main reasons America had control of the canal was because America had helped Panama gain independence the year before. The main motivation was easier trade between countries with the time the canal cut off. It was much easier to trade once the panama canal was completed. The Panama Canal has great economic value because the U.S set tolls for ships to cross the canal.

During construction it was sometimes hard because mosquitoes gave off diseases such as yellow fever. 6,000 workers had died in the construction. In 1907, some of the construction had to stop because of medical work. In 1906, President Roosevelt was the first president to leave out of country during his time in office.


benchmark: Examine causes, course, and consequences of United States involvement in World War I.

When the war began in 1914, the U.S’s main goal was to stay neutral. At the time the U.S had a new president, and Wilson’s slogan was: “He kept us out of the war.” On February 1, 1917 Germany declared it would have restricted warfare on all allies and neutral ships. with that, the U.S broke their friendship. the Zimmerman Telegram was an intercepted telegram from Germany to Mexico saying that mexico was going to take back Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico and wanted to persuade Japan into the central powers. Wilson proposed war against Germany mostly because of the submarine policy.

The U.S entered the war in the spring of 1917. With weakened allied forces the United States had to send more troops then planned. 2.8 million soldiers were drafted and 1.4 million of them went to war. The first American troops landed in June of 1917. The American troops were in many battles that set the Germans back. With America’s success, Germany asked for peace with Wilson on January of 1918. The fighting ended November 11, 1918.

After WWI, the americans chose isolationism( not joining and allied forces, foreign trade, or international agreements). The economy showed great prosperity in the 20’s after WWI, known as the roaring 20’s. The 20’s were unbalanced, and following the war was the stock market crash of 1929. The U.S decided to fund the rebuilding of Germany until the beginning of the great depression, friendship between the countries broke after the rise of Nazi power in Germany.


benchmark: Examine how the United States government prepared the nation for war with war measures

Leading up to the war, people were being pressured to buy bonds for the war. In 1917 and 1918 the government issue liberty bonds so they could raise more money for the war. they used posters buy famous artists to get people to invest in the war. The government raised 21.5 billion dollars for ww1 through bonds for the war effort.

The selective of service act was passed on may 18, 1917. The U.S army was tiny compared to other armies in the world. Men from the ages of 21 to 30 were required to register for the war. More than half of the 4.8 million men from the army were drafted. the draft had a very high success rate with fewer than 350,000 men dodging the draft. there were three drafts. the First on june 5, 1917. Second on June 5, 1918, and third on September 12, 1918. The third was for men 18 through 45 years old.

benchmark: Examine the impact of airplanes, battleships, new weaponry and chemical warfare in creating new war strategies:

In 1914 combat between airplanes was uncommon. They were mainly used for reconnaissance photographs or some far sighted aviators who could envision using them for bombing. Some planes had machine guns in the observers seat. In 1915 Tony Fokker, a Dutch airplane builder put in interrupter gear, permitting a machine gun to fire through the prop with more reliability. Another new weapon was poison gas. Poison gas was used to range of things including disabling chemicals to lethal agents.

Tanks were used for the time in World War One at the Battle of the Somme. They were made to deal with conditions on the Western Front. The first tank that was used was named Little Willie. Little Willie needed a crew made of 3 people, and the tank had a maximum speed of 3mph. The Zeppelin was another weapon used in the war. It was also known has a blimp. The Zeppelin was used by Germans in the early part of the war. It was used for bombing raids.


This is a picture of The Zeppelin.


Benchmark: Compare the experiences Americans (African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, women, conscientious objectors) had while serving in Europe.

5.09 million out of 23.8 million women were working in Britain by 1914. These women stayed and worked to support their families. For women to work in the Military, the main area you had to work in was nursing. Even though the U.S. armed forces remained segregated through World War One, many African Americans still volunteered to join the Allied cause following with America's entry into the war.

Over 350, 000 African Americans served with the American Expeditionary Force on the Western Front by the time of the armistice with Germany. 171 members were awarded the Legion of Merit during The 369th Infantry Regiment, also known as the "Harlem Hellfighters" which was on the front lines for six months, longer than any other American unit in the war. Even though most African Americans units were largely relegated to support roles and did not see much combat, they still played a great role in the war.


Benchmark: Compare how the war impacted German Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Jewish Americans, Native Americans, women and dissenters in the United States.

The Germans were impacted by the war in many ways. A few were when President Woodrow Wilson issued two regulations on April 6 and November 16, 1917 imposing restrictions on German-born men of the United States over the age of 14. On April 18, 1918 the same regulations and requirements were imposed for women. In Asia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many people that were from East Asia decided to immigrate to the United States where opportunities for work and a better life beckoned. Despite numerous instances of discrimination, many Asian-Americans joined the U.S. Army and served with distinction during World War I on the battlefields of France.

The war impacted Africans Americans when the United States Armed Forces discouraged blacks to enlist in the military at the beginning of the war. The Associated Press sent a telegram out from Richmond, Virginia, April 24, 1917 stating: "Richmond, Va., April 24.---No more Negroes will be accepted for enlistment in the United States Army at present. This was the order received by Major Hardeman, officer in charge of the recruiting station here, from the War Department. 'Colored organizations filled,' was the explanation." Hispanics in the Military were discriminated as well. Latinos who could not speak much english were sent to special training places to improve their skills so they could be integrated into mainstream army. Soldiers with Spanish surnames were sometimes the objects of ridicule and regulated to menial jobs. Also,During World War One, 12,000 Native Americans served our country.


Benchmark: Examine the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles and the failure of the United States to support the League of Nations.

The Treaty of Versailles was signed on June 28, 1919. This treaty was a peace treaty to end the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. The treaty had many provisions but there were a few major ones. One was Germany was forced to pay for the complete cost of World War I. That is also including homes that were destroyed, ammunition, and uniforms. When the treaty was finally signed, the payment for the war damages were estimated as high as $300 billion!

One of the issues with the Treaty of Versailles was when the United States senate refused the ratification of the treaty. The opposition of Senator Henry Cobot Lodge was one of largest issue faced in the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. One of the other largest obstacles was the League of Nations. Congress believed that committing to the League of Nations meant committing U.S. troops to any conflict that may have arisen. On March 19, 1920 the last vote on the treaty happened. Two thirds majority required for the Senate to consent to ratification.

benchmark:Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as they relate to United States history.

There were many important people in the history of florida. One of the people is Henry plant. He was involved in many railroad projects in the state of Florida. He created the plant system of railroads which is part of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad now. this all happened around the Civil War era and he even has a city named after him: Plant city. Another important man is Henry Flagler. He was very important in the building of the eastern coast railroads. He is also the founder of Florida East Coast Railway. He is most famous for finding Palm Beach, Florida and he is known as the father of Miami, Florida.

There are many key events in the history of Florida. In 1861, Florida seceded from the Union and joined the confederacy. After the war ended, Florida was placed under military control. Florida wa
s growing rapidly in the 1900’s. In 1912, the railroads extended all the way to Key West. This opened big possibilities. Florida’s economy was hit hard in the 1920’s after hurricanes hit Florida before the great depression.