Benchmark 1:
Analyze the economic challenges to American farmers and farmers' responses to these challenges in the mid to late 1800s.

During the Industrial Revolution many farmers and their farms across America were put to rest due to the dependence that the world put on factories in the mid to late 1800s. Factories had many positives but also came with a lot of negatives. Factories caused a lot of economic stress for the farmers that depending on people needing food and milk from them. Many farmers were forced to move into the city and leave their farms. They had look to factories for jobs. Some farmers though got the chance (if they had the money) to expand their farms and start producing raw materials to sell to the factories.

Many of the farmers during this era were not happy about having to change their lifestyle. Many complaints had to deal with the declining incomes, business relationships and high interest rates. Their incomes were declining not only due to the factories taking over, but because of the prices for their products were going down. This was blamed on over-production. The farmers felt that the interests were too high because of monopolistic leaders.

Benchmark 2:
Examine the social, political, and economic causes, course, and consequences of the second Industrial Revolution that began in the late 19th century.

The Second Industrial Revolution that lasted from 1871 until 1914 all started with one word “greed”. Everyone in America wanted more than what they already had, more money, more land, and more control. Everyone saw what happened during the first industrial revolution and they wanted to see what more they could do. Many scientific ideas were being brought up and so inventors across the country tried their hand at developing the newest and greatest tool.

At the beginning of the Second Industrial Revolution the government during this time had a hands-off policy. They did not interfere with business until they started getting large and became corporations. Also, during this time the government started paying less and less attention to people that had lower salaries. They put all of their attention towards the wealthier. This was because since 1890, a small portion of the populations controlled 75 percent of the nation’s wealth. During this time, the rich were very rich while the rest of the people worked in factories earning less than 500 dollars a year.

The social status of the people during the Second Industrial Revolution was very poor. All of the better and higher paying jobs were given to native-born whites or the European immigrants. The rest of the jobs left were working in factories were given to the African Americans and children. In 1900, one in every 6 children ages 10 to 15 were working in factories. The poorest of conditions were in factory jobs. The factory workers worked 10-hour days, six days a week with no paid vacation and no sick leave. Many of the workers were injured because of terrible accidents due to the rapid production standard that they were held too. Sweatshops; which were the factories that were harder to work in and were the factories that usually had most of the women and children; were very common during this time. They were cramped work shops set up in crummy buildings.


Benchmark 4:
Determine how the development of steel, oil, transportation, communication, and business practices affected the United States economy.

The United States economy was booming during the Industrial Revolution. The economic boom was because as the pace of things being made was going up so did the pace of people buying products. Communication during this time was just starting to where you did not have to be face to face to tell someone something. Morse code, the telegraph, and the telephone were all invented during these years. Transportation was just getting started during the 18th Century. The steam engine, submarine, steam boat and steam ship were just some of the new transportation methods invented. The oil and steel industry also were started during this time.

All of these industries caused the American economy to reach great levels. The United States economy prospered from exporting oil and steel. Also, the people of the country wanted to buy our transportation methods; which brought in a lot of money. Business practices were a lot stronger because America had gotten use to dealing with the world.


The Steel Industry

Benchmark 6:
Analyze changes that occurred as the United States shifted from agrarian to an industrial society.

During the Industrial Revolution the peaceful agrarian society turned into a mass production, industrial society. There were many advantages and disadvantages to this. The industrial revolution gave second chances to people around the world by allowing them to work no matter what. People that did not have many skills could always work a machine and it provided them with a salary. The factories provided mass production; which led to more money for America. During this time there were many inventions that are still around today like the spinning jenny and the power loom. We would be nowhere today without the inventions that now provide us with clothes. Farming actually improved because there were so many new inventions that made farming easier and faster.

Many disadvantages came along with the advantages of the Industrial Revolution. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to help get rid of slavery. The cotton gin was able to do the same kind and amount of work as the slaves. But this made people want to up their amount of salves so that they could make more with less time resulting in more money. When the cotton production went up, so did the cotton exports and so more and more countries relied on the United States for cotton. The Cotton Gin along with many other inventions may sound great but it caused many people to start cotton farming and so the Native Americans were pushed out of their land because everyone wanted farming land. Slavery got worse and worse as the world became more of an industrial society. As the Industrial society took over the whites and blacks resulted in killing each other due to all of the challenges and stress that came along with the Industrial Revolution.


Benchmark 5.
There were many inventors that were involved in the Industrial Revolution. Every single one of them added something new and creative that helped shape our world into what it is today.

1800: Count Alessandro Volta invented the battery
1804: The first steam-powered train was invented by Richard Trevithick.
1809: The first electric light was invented by Humphry Davy.
1814: The first photograph was shot by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.
11819: René Laënnec invents the stethoscope.
1829: The typewriter was invented by W.A. Burt.
Louis Braille invented Braille printing for the blind.
1830: Bartherlemy Thimonnier invented the sewing machine.
1834: The first refrigerator type device was invented called the “ice bo
x” by Jacob Perkins.
1837: The telegraph was invented by Samuel Morse.
Rowland Hill invented the postage stamp.
1838: Samuel Morse invented Morse code.
1856: Loius Pastuer invented pasteurisation.
1867: The first practical and modern typewriter was invented by Chrisopher Scholes.
1868: Robert Mushet invented the tungsten steel.
1872: J.S. Risdon patented the metal windmill.
1876: Alexander graham Bell patented the telephone.
1877: Eadweard Muybridge invented the first moving pictures.
1880: The British Perforated Paper Company invented a form of toilet paper.
As you can see these inventions that were first invented during the First and Second Industrial Revolution make everyday life a little easier and these are not even half of the total inventions that took place.



Benchmark 7.
During the Industrial Revolution the Asians immigrated to the United States. The American people did not like this because there were so many of them. The United States and China came together to sign a document (The Chinese Exclusion Act) that would prevent Chinese Laborers from coming into America. If they wanted to come over they would first have to go to the Chinese government and prove that they were not coming over for labor reasons. This proved to be very difficult seeing as how the document stated that unskilled, skilled and employed in mining were not allowed to enter. For the Chinese that were already settled here, they were allowed to leave but once they left they had to have a certificate from the American government saying that they could re-enter.

The Europeans had a different immigration experience. They came just as the Asians did, they came to give themselves and their families a better life. They were not wanted at first but they worked hard and soon gained recognition from the Americans.

Benchmark 8:
Examine the importance of social change and reform in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (class system, migration from farms to cities, Social Gospel movement, role of settlement houses and churches in providing services to the poor).

Families weren’t working at home any more. Regular working people found more opportunities for jobs in factories and new mills. The working conditions were often harsh. They had to work long hours and in a pace that was set by a machine. During the industrial revolution child labor was increased drastically. Employers could pay children less than adults even though they were equally productive.
The importance of the social change and reform was that it was transition from farm life to city life. This transformed the agriculture society to a commercial society. This is important because it can manufacture things faster and more efficiently. The social gospel movement was a movement that mainly focused on Christan ethics and moral principals to improve the industrial society.
Settlement houses were reform institutions. They were large buildings in underprivileged over populated cities, where the workers provided services for the people who needed to get out of poverty.
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Benchmark 9:
Examine causes, course, and consequences of the labor movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The labor movement is an organization of working people who are campaigning for better working conditions and better treatment from their employers. Labor unions have been around since the late 1700’s. Children at very young ages were working very hard and long hours with little or no pay.
There were some people who strongly disagreed with child labor and wanted to get rid of it or improve the conditions. In 1833 the Factory Act passed by Parliament. The law limited the amount of time children could work. In the 20th century the Children’s Bureau was founded in 1912, which the U.S. government was responsible to monitor child labor. The triangle shirtwaist fire caused 146 deaths to the workers in the factory. Most of them were women. A lot of the workers couldn't exit because the managers locked the doors to keep people from leaving early. This led to people having to jump from the 7th and 8th floors.

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Benchmark 10:
Review different economic and philosophic ideologies.

Market economy is an economy based on the power of division of labor, which the prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system. A mixed economy is an economy where there are public and private enterprise. A planned is an economic system where the government controls and regulates production, distribution and prices. Capitalism is an economic system that the means of production, distribution, and exchange of wealth is privately owned. Socialism is a system of social organizations promotes ownership and control of the means of production and distribution in the community. Communism is a system of social organization eliminating private property. Anarchy is a state of society without any government or laws.

Benchmark 11:
Analyze the impact of political machines in United States cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

A political machine is an organized small group of people who controls a political party. They were used to secure government contracts. It was led by one single boss that gets enough votes to keep political control of a city, state or country.
Political machines caused many problems for the United States cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This created a lot of problems for city governments because they were poorly built and unable to provide services.

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Benchmark 12:
Compare how different nongovernmental organizations and progressives worked to shape public policy, restore economic opportunities, and correct injustices in American life.

Organizations such as the YMCA, NAACP and National Women's Suffrage Association were very important during the industrial revolution. The National Women's Suffrage Association (NWSA) was formed when women’s rights movement was split into two groups. The NWSA gave main concern was to secure women the right to vote. The YMCA
These organizations shaped public policy because they were opening new opportunities. This led to women being able to vote. These organizations led people to new beginnings.

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Benchmark 13:
Examine key events and peoples in Florida history as they relate to United States history.

The growth of Florida’s railroads was very important in Florida history. Henry B. Plant started building railroads all over Florida. Also he linked Florida’s railways to Georgia. Henry Flager bought railroads that were the Florida East Coast Railway. The Florida East Coast Railway built the first railroad bridges to Key West.
These events and people relates to U.S. history because the railroads were built around the end of the industrial revolution and these railroads made it easier for people to travel and more efficiently. Florida By 1900 had more than 3,000 miles of railroad and there were no more transportation problems.

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