The Roaring Twenties and The Great Depression



Standard 5: Analyze the effects of the changing social, political, and economic conditions of the Roaring Twenties and the Great Depression.




Directions:

1. Read each benchmark.
2. Take the quiz after reading each benchmark.
3. To take the quizzes go to classmarker.com and use your log-in and password assigned to you (your log-in and password was sent via email).
4. Once all benchmarks have been read and the quiz for each benchmark completed take the end-of-standard exam.
5. The quizzes and end-of-standard exam will not cover benchmarks 10 or 12. These will be done at a later date.



Benchmark 1: Discuss the economic outcomes of demobilization.
World War I was thought to continue for another year, but American officials were unprepared on November 11, 1918 when the Armistice was announced. The demobilization process was not planned out and the government’s process from wartime to peacetime economy was perfunctory and imperfect. Starting in November 1918 the partially organized divisions were the fist to demobilize. Fifty-five of the Army’s sixty-two divisions had been demobilized a year after the Armistice. When and if the soldiers got home the economic situation at home was far from pleasant.

As soldiers returned home the unemployment rate skyrocketed and the national economy was on the brink of crashing. During the time that the men were at war women took their places in the workforce. When the soldiers returned many women lost their jobs. Veterans were not the only ones who were unemployed. Millions of Americans were suffering from the post war rescission.

The ex-servicemen received little to no help to find jobs from the government; because of this veterans demanded additional retroactive pay. In 1924, Veterans of World War I received an adjusted compensation bond that matured in 1945. When the Great Depression struck veterans that received the bond called for immediate payment. The Bonus March in 1932 was an outcome of the bonds from 1924. Gradually the economy got better with the introduction of industries such as automobiles and housing construction. As cities began to revive the countryside was still suffering. During the war farmers took out loans to meet the wartime demand for agricultural products. When the Allied food orders ceased at the end of the war farmers were seriously affected. The demobilization process after World War I was by no means sufficiently managed, and that mismanagement lead to many problems that changed the lives of many people.



Unemployment rate during the Depression of 1920-21
Year
Stanley Lebergott
Christina Romer
1919
1.4%
3.0%
1920
5.2%
5.2%
1921
11.7%
8.7%
1922
6.7%
6.9%
1923
2.4%
4.8%
http://minneapolisfed.org/Research/events/1985_10-24/Romer_UnemploymentData.pdf


- http://www.history.army.mil/books/lineage/M-F/chapter4.htm
- http://www.plymouth.k12.in.us/~bwaymouth/us%20history%20site/lectures/chapter%2013.htm
- http://www.bookrags.com/research/demobilization-aaw-03/




Benchmark 2: Explain the causes of the public reaction (Sacco and Vanzetti, labor, racial unrest) associated with the Red Scare.
In 1919 the American people became gripped with fear of a possible social revolution similar to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. Widespread dread of a possible revolution of the “reds” gripped the American public. Worker strikes swept the country as well as a since of impending doom. People feared that worker strikes, civil unrest, and out breaks of mob violence would lead to the collapse of infrastructure and a local “Bolshevik Menace”. On January 2, 1920, Justice department agents simultaneously arrested 3,000 “communists, anarchists, and aliens” in 30 different cities. All in all, 7000 people where arrested during the “scare” with 556 begin imprisoned or deported.

ww1_red_scare_strikes.jpeg

The trials of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti began in 1921. The two Italian Anarchists were accused of murdering two men during an armed robbery in 1920. They were attentional convicted and executed on August 23, 1927, after a highly publicized and controversial appeals process. There was large speculation that the two were convicted in an unfair trail, not because they were guilty but simply because of their immigrate statues and radical beliefs. In his final statement Vanzetti expressed many peoples view of the trail.

“I am suffering because I am a radical. Indeed I am a radical. I have suffered because I was an Italian. Indeed, I am an Italian. I have suffered more for my family and my beloved than for myself. But I am so convinced to be right that if you could execute me two times, and if I could be reborn two other times, I would live again to do what I have done already. I have finished. Thank you.”
7300.jpg
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti


- http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/saccov/redscare.html
- http://www.plymouth.k12.in.us/~bwaymouth/us%20history%20site/lectures/chapter%2013.htm
- http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture16.html




Benchmark 3: Examine the impact of United States foreign economic policy during the 1920s
In 1921, Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding took office. President Woodrow Wilson left the state of the union in poor condition. The Unemployment rate in 1921 was 20% and the United States was in the midst of a post war recession. On April 12, 1921 President Harding submitted his economic recovery program. President Harding called the program “A Return to Normalcy.” The program contained:
  • a call for a national budget program
  • national dept reduction
  • tax reduction
  • an emergency tariff to protect American industry and farm commodities
  • farm relief legislation
  • immigration restrictions to protect American jobs




The Return to Normalcy program was passed in 1921 by Congress and by late 1922 and economic situation in America started to see new light. Unfortunately President Harding did not live to see normalcy return to America. Harding’s predecessor was Calvin Coolidge and he decided to build on Harding’s program which lead to Coolidge’s prosperity.The unemployment rate went down from 20% in 1921 to about 3.3% for the rest of the decade. The Harding-Coolidge normalcy program increased revenue, cut government dept and spending and proved to bring America back to normal.

http://www.ridelust.com/wp-content/uploads/xmarybay.jpg
http://www.ridelust.com/wp-content/uploads/xmarybay.jpg

http://www.urbanguidebook.com/new-york-city.html
http://www.urbanguidebook.com/new-york-city.html


- http://www.calvin-coolidge.org/html/the_harding_coolidge_prosperit.html
- http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/American-Foreign-Policy-in-the-20s.topicArticleId-25238,articleId-25210.html
- http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/depression/about.ht
- http://www.academicamerican.com/worldwar2/topics/1920WWII1940.ht




Benchmark 4: Evaluate how the economic boom during the Roaring Twenties changed consumers, businesses, manufacturing, and marketing practices
During the 1920s, the United States experienced a period of huge economic growth and prosperity. During this time the nations infrastructure grew dramatically. Many industries began more away from coal and towards electricity. The widespread adoption of the Telephone shrunk the country, making instant communication from coast to coast possible. Big ticket consumer items such as cars, washing machines, fringes, vacuums and radios, which were previously only available to the wealthy, were suddenly available to the average shopper. Indoor plumbing become a common convenient in almost all household. Within the first two years of the onset of radio, between 1920 and 1922, receivers sales grew but 2500 percent. The wide spread use of the assembly line, which was pioneered by Henry Ford from 1908 and 1925, made manufactured goods more prevalent as well as much more affordable for the average American. Annual automobile production rose from 2 million in 1920 to 5.5 million in 1929. By the end of the 1920s there was an automobile for every five Americans. The 1920s also saw the wide spread use of Americans buying things based on credit. In 1925, 75 percent of all automobile purchases in the US were on installment plans.

external image Radio%20consumerism%20pic%201.jpg
external image wedding.bmp.gif

- http://www.helium.com/items/1301746-economic-prosperity
- http://www.1920-30.com/business/
- http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture15.html




Benchmark 5: Describe efforts by the United States and other world powers to avoid future wars
After World War I the League of Nations was formed from the Treaty of Versailles. Woodrow Wilson personally represented the United States in the Versailles peace meeting. Wilson believed that he could establish a security organization (The League of Nations) who’s main purpose was to prevent another world war and a treaty (The Treaty of Versailles). Wilson believed that he could get enough members of the senate to vote for ratification of the Treaty of Versailles, but he was ultimately rejected and ending with it any hope in the participation of America in the League of Nations.

Between 1920 and 1925, the League of Nations helped diffuse a border dispute between Sweden and Finland, prevented Austria from economic collapse, prevented the outbreak of a war in the Balkans, and had successfully begun the administration of the German Saar region. [2] Even though they had many successes they were essentially a weak organization that had no power in enforcing what they were created to do. The League of Nations essentially failed politically, but they still had many successes socially.

external image League_of_nations_symbol.gif
external image Lbn8QVeLUx4e50EhFtuUxayXsoqlrEAR1a2tEriHCzNHdEFblc8tsVrM57XZy9IvzHmfbCC4CIyxnoY4i3TL64Kk6zCniwWvdR-teDqj3Ev-iHjQiQ


- http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/leagueofnations.htm
- http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/league-of-nations.htm
- http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0859217.html




Benchmark 6: Analyze the influence that Hollywood, the Harlem Renaissance, the Fundamentalist movement, and prohibition had in changing American society in the 1920s
The Eighteenth Amendment restricted the production, sale, distribution, importation, and exportation of alcohol in the United States. Passed on October 28, 1919, and enacted on January 16, 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment can be credited with giving the spark that lead to the birth of organized crime in America. Americans still had a large appetite for alcoholic beverages and huge profits could be made through rum-running, bootlegging, and moon-shining. Gangsters such as Al Capone were able to build crime empires on the back off illegal liquor. Faced with immense opposition, the Eighteenth Amendment was repealed on December 5, 1933, with the ratification of the Twenty-first Amendment. Many supporters of Prohibition began to see it as a failure. In 1932 John D. Rockefeller Jr. wrote:

"When Prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be widely supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized. I have slowly and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has generally increased; the speakeasy has replaced the saloon; a vast army of lawbreakers has appeared; many of our best citizens have openly ignored Prohibition; respect for the law has been greatly lessened; and crime has increased to a level never seen before."




- http://www.vintageperiods.com/harlem.php
- http://www.vintageperiods.com/prohibition.php
- http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/hollywood_history.cfm




Benchmark 7: Examine the freedom movements that advocated civil rights for African Americans, Latinos, Asians, and women
African Americans:
The 1920s was a hard decade for many African Americans despite the prosperity that occurred during the Roaring Twenties. During the 1920s lynching was common practice and the main group of people being lynched were African Americans. The NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) launched an anti-lynching campaign which brought the terrors lynching in the South into public view. In 1925 A. Philip Randolph and Milton P. Webster led the The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters (BSCP). The BSCP was the first labor union and was organized by African American employees who worked for the Pullman Company. Marcus Garvey a supporter of black nationalism founded the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association. Garvey believed that the only way to improve the conditions of African Americans was to unite them; he planned to do this with the UNIA.

http://deskofbrian.com/wp-content/uploads/NAACP-Logo.jpg
http://deskofbrian.com/wp-content/uploads/NAACP-Logo.jpg

Latinos:
In 1921 Latino workers raise awareness about civil right issues such as housing, education and fair wadges. The Latino workers are organized by San Antonio's Orden Hijos de América (Order of the Sons of America). In 1929 the League of United Latin American Citizens is formed and becomes the longest lasting civil rights group in the country.

http://lulac10.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/lulac_logo.28140620.jpg
http://lulac10.org/yahoo_site_admin/assets/images/lulac_logo.28140620.jpg

Asians:
In 1922 Supreme Court Judges rule that Asian Americans who are born in the United States are citizens. This allowed Wong Kim Ark to return to the United States after leaving to go visit China.

Women:
On August 18, 1920 the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution was ratified granting women the right to vote. Also in 1920 the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor is formed. Their job is to make sure women have good working conditions and to collect information about women in the workforce.


- http://www.plymouth.k12.in.us/~bwaymouth/us%20history%20site/lectures/chapter%2013.htm
- http://www.tolerance.org/latino-civil-rights-timeline
- http://racerelations.about.com/od/historyofracerelations/a/RevisitingtheYellowPowerMovement.htm
- http://www.vintageperiods.com/suffrage.php
- http://www.infoplease.com/spot/womenstimeline1.html




Benchmark 8: Compare the views of Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. DuBois, and Marcus Garvey relating to the African American experience
W. E. B. DuBois was an American intellectual and civil rights activists, born in Massachusetts on February 23, 1868. In 1895 he became the first African American to graduate from the University of Harvard of with a doctorate degree. DuBois along with other African American intellectuals adamantly opposed the views of Booker T. Washington and later Marcus Garvey. In an essay titled "Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others" DuBois criticized Washington for failing to realize that without political power and formalized education in the liberal arts, any economic gain as well as social progress would be short lived.

W. E. B. DuBois
W. E. B. DuBois
Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington
Marcus Garvey
Marcus Garvey



- http://www.vintageperiods.com/harlem.php
- http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/peopleevents/p_washington.html
- http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/peopleevents/p_dubois.html
- http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/peopleevents/p_garvey.html




Benchmark 9: Explain why support for the Ku Klux Klan varied in the 1920s with respect to issues such as anti-immigration, anti-African American, anti-Catholic, anti-Jewish, anti-women, and anti-union ideas
The Ku Klux Klan was a secret White Supremacy group in the Southern States of America that aimed violence towards African Americans, Catholics, Jewish people, and other minorities. People supported the Ku Klux Klan for many different reasons. During the 1920s the United States experience much economic prosperity, but economic prosperity was very common in the South. Many people blamed the lack of economic prosperity on blacks and anger mixed with racism towards blacks made for a very violent situation in the South. The Ku Klux Klan strongly supported anti-immigration along with many white Americans; so in turn many Americans supported the KKK for their anti-immigration acts. Jewish people were targeted by the KKK for a couple of reasons. Jewish people were terrorized by the KKK because of their increasingly high status and control of the banks. Catholics were exploited because the KKK believed that Catholics could not be good Americans if they remained faithful to the Pope. Anybody who according to the KKK was not a WASP(White Allegro-Saxon Protestant) or not morally or racially pure was targeted.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Klan-in-gainesville.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Klan-in-gainesville.jpg




By the mid 1920s support for the KKK drastically declined. During the peak of the KKK the number of members had reached over 4 million. At the end of the decade the number of members dropped to about 30 thousand. The drop in Klan members is partially due to fact that the terrorism of the KKK was being publicized. The KKK fell out of the public favor also because of the scandal with David Stephenson the leader of the KKK in Indiana and fourteen other states. Stephenson was convicted with the kidnap, sexual assault and murder of Madge Oberholtzer. After the scandal with Stephenson the KKK began to collapse and political figures who had endorsed the KKK did not feel the need to work with the KKK anymore.

http://www.virginiawestern.edu/faculty/vwhansd/his122/Images/KKK_Stephenson.jpg
http://www.virginiawestern.edu/faculty/vwhansd/his122/Images/KKK_Stephenson.jpg


- http://www.plymouth.k12.in.us/~bwaymouth/us%20history%20site/lectures/chapter%2013.htm
- http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/kkk_and_racial_problems.htm
- http://www.martinfrost.ws/htmlfiles/kkk1.html#Decline_and_suppression
- http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/Imm_KKK/KKK%20pages/KKK-page2.htm




Benchmark 10: Analyze support for and resistance to civil rights for women, African Americans, Native Americans, and other minorities

The Nineteenth Amendment, ratified on August 18, 1920, prohibited any United States citizen form begin denied the right to vote based on gender. Tennessee was the 36 state to ratify the amendment making it law throughout the entire country.

The women's suffrage movement gained considerable ground after the onset of World War I. Because of labor shortage at home women were more widely accepted into the workforce. The suffrage movement also gained a spark when President Woodrow Wilson referred to World War 1 as a war for democracy. Suffragettes were out raged by this and claimed that the United States was not a democracy.
external image suffrage-800px.jpg


- http://www.vintageperiods.com/suffrage.php
- http://encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/27.html
- http://www.policyalmanac.org/culture/archive/native_americans.shtml




Benchmark 11: Examine causes, course, and consequences of the Great Depression and the New Deal
Causes:
The stock market crash of 1929 was a major cause of the Great Depression. On September 3, 1929, the Dow Jones stock market was at 381 points. On Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, the Dow Jones stock market went down to 230 points. Two months after the original crash in October, stockholders had lost more than $40 billion dollars [1]. The stock market crash had astronomical effects on the United States, and eventually the world. In the 1930s thousands of banks had failed. By the year 1933 an estimate of 11,000 of the United States’ 25,000 banks had failed causing people to lose their savings. After the stock market crash people became unwilling to spend their money in fear of farther economic troubles. As people stopped buying goods production was cut and in turn jobs were lost. Soon the unemployment rate rose to over 25% and this did nothing to for the economy except make it worse. The drought that occurred in the Mississippi valley during the 1930s was so profound that many people were unable to pay their taxes or debts that they had to sell their properties; when people sold their properties they did not gain any profit from it and were left with nothing.
http://www.ohwy.com/history%20pictures/maps/bear-market.gif
http://www.ohwy.com/history%20pictures/maps/bear-market.gif

Course:
During the Great Depression the unemployment rate hits an all time high in 1933 but from then on it slowly starts to fall. Between 1932 and 1935 Congress passed many acts, administrations, corporations, bills, commissions, and boards in an effort to improve the economy. The years of 1932 and 1933 were the worst two years of the Great Depression and when the unemployment rate is the highest. In the year 1938 a year long recession occurs because president Roosevelt cut spending in 1937 in fear of an unbalanced budget. The Great Depression comes to a close in 1939 when the United States builds its armed forces and enters World War II in 1941.

Consequences:
The Great Depression not only effected the United States but almost every country in the world. Tax revenues, profits and personal incomes all dramatically declined during the Great Depression. Countries raised tariffs on imports in an effort to protect their industries and products which lead to a decline in world trade. Germany and Great Britain were dependent on the United States for money after World War I, but when the United States fell into the Great depression the United States was unable
to fund Germany and Great Britain. The terrible economic situation in Germany lead to the rise of Adolf Hitler and the start of World War II.

The New Deal program was founded by President Roosevelt in 1933. The New Deal was an economic recovery program focused on relief, recovery and reform during the Great Depression. The New Deal aimed to create new jobs, bring the economy back up to normal levels, and make sure a depression did not occur again. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) were focused on helping farmers, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA) were focused on creating jobs. The New Deal was successful in the sense that it created new jobs and the role of the government in economic affairs had improved, but it also did not end the Great Depression. As World War II draws near the world pulls itself from the depression to prepare.

http://nedgrace.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/fdr1.jpg
http://nedgrace.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/fdr1.jpg




- http://americanhistory.about.com/od/greatdepression/tp/greatdepression.htm
- http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/connections_n2/great_depression.html
- http://www.buzzle.com/articles/effects-of-the-great-depression.html
- http://history1900s.about.com/od/1930s/p/greatdepression.htm




E x a m i n e k e y e v e n t s a n d p e o p l e i n F l o r i d a h i s t o r y a s t h e y r e l a t e t o U n i t e d S t a t e s h i s t o r y .
Florida became the 27 state in the US on March 4, 1845, with William D Mosley becoming the first governor. During the Civil War, Florida escaped most the physical destruction suffered by many other southern states. Also, no divisive battles were ever fought on Florida soil. Post WWII, Florida has experienced steady population growth. The most famous national news headline, focusing on Florida in recent years, would probably be the events after and proceeding the 2000 presidential elections. The race was so close that winner of florida would win the presidency. To make matters worse there was incredible controversy surrounding "hanging chives". The matter eventually went all the way to the supreme court, with George W. Bush becoming 43rd President of the United States.

- http://www.flheritage.com/ facts/history/summary/
- http://fcit.usf.edu/florida/ lessons/ld_boom/ld_boom1.htm
- http://floridahistory.org/ landboom.htm